Climate Change; Causes, Impacts and Solutions

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Climate Change; Causes, Impacts and Solutions
Climate Change; Causes, Impacts and Solutions

Climate Change; Causes, Impacts and Solutions

Climate Change; Causes, Impacts and Solutions
Climate Change; Causes, Impacts and Solutions

A few years back climate change was regarded as a “myth” but the phenomenon is real as it’s evidence can be seen on the planet. Here we will discuss in details Climate Change; Causes, Impacts and Solutions.

What is Climate Change?

Climate change is a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century. It is attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.

Causes of Climate Change

There are different causes of climate change, some of them will be discussed below.

The Greenhouse Effect

Different gases are present in the atmosphere, these gases block heat from escaping. These gases cause greenhouse effect that leads to climate change. Some of the greenhouse gases are;

Water Vapor

It is the most abundant greenhouse gas. Water vapor not only increases the temperature of the earth but also increase the possibility of clouds and precipitation.

Carbon Dioxide

It is another important gas that causes the greenhouse effect. It is released in the atmosphere by the natural process of volcanic eruptions and respiration and through the unnatural process of human activities. CO2 is the most important long-lived force of climate change.

Methane

It is produced through natural as well as the unnatural process. Methane is a far more active force of climate change than carbon dioxide. However, it is less abundant in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide.

Nitrous Oxide

Soil cultivation process produces the powerful greenhouse gas. It’s level increases because of the combustion of fossil fuels, biomass burning, and through the commercial use of fertilizers.

Chlorofluorocarbons

These compounds are produced by industries and they are also a component of the greenhouse effect.

All of the above-mentioned gases are important in the greenhouse effect that causes climate change. Here we will explain to you the phenomenon of the greenhouse effect and how it plays its role in climate change.  The sun’s energy reaches the earth. Earth absorbs Some energy and Some energy reflect back to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gases make a cloud over the earth in the atmosphere and they absorb 90% of the energy that is reflected back from the earth and hence the greenhouse effect causes climate change.


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The Role of Human Activities

The Intergovernmental Panel on climate change concludes that there is 95% probability that human activities have played a role for climate change over the past 50 years. The industrial activities raise the ratio of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The growing population, commercial fertilization, and combustion are some of the additional factors that have played their role in climate change.

Evidence of  Climate Change

The climate of the earth has been changed over a period of time. However, many people regarded it as a “myth”, but, the phenomenon of climate change is real and its evidence can be seen in our surroundings. Some of the evidence includes;

  • The global temperature has risen about 1.62 Fahrenheit since the late 19th century.
  • The oceans have absorbed heat and they are 0.4 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than 1969.
  • The ice-sheets have decreased and between 1993to 2016, Greenland lost an average of 286 billion tons of ice per year. While Antartica lost 127 billion tons of ice during the same time period.
  • Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world.
  • Satellite images revealed that the amount of spring snow cover has decreased in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • The global sea-level has risen about 8 inches.
  • The acidity of the surface ocean has increased about 30%.

Impacts of Climate Change

We can see the impacts of climate change in our world but currently, they are not severe. However, if the changes would have been continued the world would face sever impacts of climate change. Some of these include;

  • The temperature will continue to rise.
  • Frost-free season and growing season will lengthen.
  • Changes will occur in the precipitation pattern.
  • More droughts and heat wave will occur.
  • Frequent droughts would cause wild-fires and it would destroy crops.
  • Hurricanes will become stronger and more intense. 
  • Sea level will rise 1-4feet by 2100.
  • The sea-level increase will erode the coasts.
  • The Arctic likely to become ice-free.
  • Forests and biodiversity will face the real threat of extinction.
  • Freshwater ecosystems are already under pressure, climate change will further exacerbate the problem and will make it worse.

Climate Change Accords

Paris Climate Agreement

The Paris agreement was adopted in 2015 and it was signed by nearly every state to address climate change. The aim of the accord is to reduce the emission of the greenhouse gases and to limit the increase of the global temperature to 2 degrees Celcius above the preindustrial level. The agreement includes the commitment from all the major powers to reduce their carbon emissions. The 32 page document establishes a framework for global climate action, including the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, support for developing nations, and the transparent reporting and strengthening of climate goals.

United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change

This was signed in 1992 and the treaty was aimed to prevent the dangerous human interference with earth’s climate system over the long period of time. However, it put no limitations over the emissions of the greenhouse gases rather it established a framework to sign such agreements in the future that put limitations on the carbon emissions.

Kyoto Protocol

The protocol was adopted in 1997 however, it did not go into effect till 2005. The protocol put limitations on carbon emissions only for developing countries. The United States signed the agreement, but never ratified it. However, its effectiveness proved to be limited because it touched the limited audience.

Climate Change Solutions

  • Eliminate or reduce burning of fossil fuels.
  • Use public transport because it will reduce the greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Consume less and it will ultimately reduce the greenhouse gas emission.
  • Stop cutting down trees.
  • Unplug the devices when you turned them off.
  • Use environment friendly LED lights.
  • Control population.
  • Promote renewable energy sources.
  • Build Sustainable infrastructure.
  • Promote responsible consumption and recycling.

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